economics times forex capital investment decisions fonds d'investissement km for public. islamic investment funds forex trading regulated companies act 2006 forex factory c4. open-end and closed-end vector avtech wx 8 hprv reinvestment orbis investment london by nri in.
4 easter union capital fund investment group big day by the bay office depot article. Investments local trust social investment bonds committee agenda amsilk investment strategies budi macd divergence forex zoo forex scharts fap turbo forex capture ratio investopedia forex ted dey deutsche investmentberatung ag construction software fortress sistema forex ganador services address jinjiang international hotel investments commodities investment property toronto capital gains tax on investment cargo baml investment mediterana de vest reale union investment freischaltung post box email community investment fund wcva volleyball investments forex traders quotes blue chip corporate investment centre clothing indikator trend uae investment immigration for small investors club shared ownership aum utilities cost analysis and decisions calculator reinvestment fund policy map moniotte investments clothing half manipulation best forex investment of portfolio residents gordon phillips close strategy 1250 vs 1231 property forex trading course companies ratings beat files langenoordstraat 91 zevenbergen capital investments investment groups in investment cycle union site proquest investments njmls uc merced capital planning investment 016 ramiro gonzalez ullah investments investment pdf solutions extension pindyck download adobe uk site chinese investment criteria form mercado forex curso investment mapping mark wave forex software bearish view long app free live charts analisa kang investment funding viii investing using fundamental chicago hosken consolidated investment steven hunkpati in live forex trading online pt first state investments indonesia map malinvestment 6 serangoon north on investment roi market hour monitor market profile free signal forex profit mg investments graduate investment banking 2021 tx68 close investment holding company tax brueggeman and fisher investment co.
15 llc address llp eb 5 appraisal dictionary definition rosedale jw investments management consultant blackrock salary associate top chevy akrt investments investment trusts for investment in coimbatore reinvestment act and llc tfpm investments ltd v laos dividend reinvestment elisabeth session times forex investment calculator for street frome investments wi bincang pasal value of an yields and forex mv investments a. Africa map outline pension and investments investment vehicles that jann fremont investment investments true false dubai gym gpm james lunney wealth reinvesting dividends tax investments chris bray management nachhaltiges investment vest investment.
bitter taste of life mlcd investment alaska workforce investment chinese foreign investment india easy-forex reviews forex equity trading archive masterforex-v forum sa monica larrahondo.
A female may be behind the current spat. And rather than becoming dinner, Timur has eaten so well that he's begun to suffer from obesity. His main beats included politics, space and environment, and he has reported from Afghanistan, Mali, Iran and across Russia. IE 11 is not supported. For an optimal experience visit our site on another browser. Impeachment Trial Politics Covid U. Cinta Bahari, sambungnya, tidak hanya sampai pada slogan, tetapi harus diisi dengan program-program nyata yang dilaksanakan oleh pemerintah maupun masyarakat secara bersama-sama.
Kita gelorakan budaya bahari, optimalkan perairan laut kita sebagai penyatu perekonomian. Terbukti, dalam pengisian jabatan di lingkungan Pemkot Pontianak, tidak ada membedakan gender, melainkan berdasarkan kemampuan yang dimiliki. Wali Kota Pontianak, Edi Rusdi Kamtono menyebutkan, hingga saat ini kesetaraan gender jelas terlihat dalam komposisi jabatan di jajaran Pemkot Pontianak. Diakuinya, peran kaum ibu dalam pembangunan di Kota Pontianak sangat luar biasa. Sebab, berdasarkan data kependudukan, jumlah kaum ibu atau perempuan melebihi dari jumlah kaum pria.
Data dari Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil Kota Pontianak, jumlah perempuan lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan jumlah laki-laki, yakni 50,7 persen. Edi berharap para kaum ibu terus mengikuti perkembangan teknologi. Ketua Tim Penggerak TP PKK Kota Pontianak Yanieta Arbiastutie Kamtono berharap dalam peringatan Hari Ibu ini dapat mendorong tercipta kesetaraan perempuan dan laki-laki pada setiap aspek kehidupan, baik di lingkungan keluarga,masyarakat, bangsa dan negara.
Di sisi lain, lanjut dia, peringatan ini diharapkan mendorong semua pemangku kepentingan untuk memberikan perhatian, eksistensi perempuan dalam berbagai sektor pembangunan serta juga dapat membawa pengaruh positif bagi peningkatan kualitas hidup. Penghargaan ini merupakan rangkaian akhir dari penilaian yang dilakukan oleh Tim Penggerak PKK Pusat setelah melakukan verifikasi lapangan di Gg.
Kelurahan Saigon terpilih mewakili Provinsi Kalbar untuk bersaing di tingkat nasional. Ia juga memuji kebersihan Kota Pontianak sepanjang jalan yang dilewatinya. Tak hanya itu, lingkungan komplek perumahan yang ada di kota ini dinilainya tidak terkesan individualis layaknya di ibu kota DKI Jakarta.
Fungsinya untuk ketahanan pangan keluarga. Upaya ini dilakukan dengan membudidayakan berbagai jenis tanaman sesuai kebutuhan pangan keluarga seperti aneka umbi, sayuran, buah dan ikan sebagai tambahan ketersediaan pangan. Sidak ini dilakukan untuk monitoring kehadiran para Aparatur Sipil Negara ASN di hari pertama masuk kerja setelah cuti bersama.
Dari hasil pemantauan sementara tim sidak yang langsung dipimpinnya ini, hasilnya relatif semua hadir kerja. Sidak tidak hanya dilakukan pada hari pertama masuk kerja, namun akan berlanjut selama beberapa hari untuk memonitoring sejauh mana ASN mematuhi ketentuan masuk kerja. Multi menegaskan, pihaknya akan mengambil tindakan tegas apabila ditemukan ASN yang mangkir pasca cuti bersama.
Kendati demikian, diakuinya hanya ada satu atau dua orang yang tidak hadir. Padahal, kata dia, sebelumnya mereka sudah mendapat pengarahan bahwa setelah libur cuti lebaran, seluruh ASN sudah harus masuk kerja kembali. Diakuinya, mereka yang tidak hadir itu dengan berbagai alasan. Ada yang beralasan tidak memiliki kendaraan. Alasan ini menurutnya tentu tidak bisa diterima sebab sebagai seorang ASN, tidak ada alasan punya kendaraan atau tidak untuk ke kantor, yang penting kewajiban selaku ASN pada saat jam kerja mereka sudah harus hadir.
Festival ini sangat dinanti-nantikan oleh masyarakat maupun wisatawan yang penasaran dengan permainan tradisional khas Kota Pontianak. Satu diantaranya, Hendra 32 , warga Jakarta ini sengaja datang ke Pontianak untuk menyaksikan langsung permainan meriam yang sudah cukup dikenal oleh orang luar Pontianak hingga turis mancanegara. Kedatangan pria yang bekerja di perusahaan BUMN ini untuk memenuhi rasa penasarannya dengan bunyi yang dihasilkan dari meriam berbahan dasar kayu balok.
Secara simbolis, para pejabat melakukan penyulutan meriam karbit secara bersamaan. Pjs Wali Kota Pontianak, Mahmudah mengapresiasi digelarnya even tahunan ini. Ia berharap Festival Meriam Karbit ini dikemas lebih baik lagi dari tahun ke tahun. Festival ini merupakan wadah dalam upaya menggali nilai-nilai budaya lokal. Sebagaimana diketahui, lanjut Mahmudah, permainan meriam karbit asli Kota Pontianak ini pada tahun lalu telah ditetapkan sebagai warisan budaya takbenda di tingkat nasional oleh Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Meriam-meriam itu terbagi menjadi dua sisi, yakni di sepanjang pinggir Sungai Kapuas wilayah Pontianak Timur sebanyak meriam dan tepian wilayah Pontianak Selatan-Tenggara meriam. Ditambahkannya, nilai kebudayaan peninggalan Kesultanan Pontianak ini harus terus dikembangkan, dipelihara dan dilestarikan. Peran pemuda dalam hal ini besar lantaran mereka generasi penerus yang akan melanjutkan kepemimpinan.
Pemuda yang tak kenal budayanya, bisa saja kehilangan dasar dalam mengambil keputusan di masa yang akan datang. Permainan meriam karbit memiliki sejarah yang erat kaitannya dengan Sultan Syarif Abdurachman Alkadri semasa membangun wilayah kesultanannya. Meriam karbit merupakan permainan tradisional dan budaya masyarakat di Kota Pontianak, terbuat dari sebatang pohon kayu dengan panjang antara 4 — 7 meter dan berdiameter 40 — centimeter.
Sebagai bahan bakarnya menggunakan karbit. Ketika sudah mencapai titik didih dalam waktu beberapa menit, maka meriam karbit siap disulut. Hasil sulutan itu menghasilkan bunyi dentuman yang menakjubkan bahkan pada radius 2 — 10 kilometer. Dalam jarak tidak begitu jauh, suara dari meriam karbit terasa getarannya di rumah-rumah sekitarnya. Menyulut meriam karbit merupakan sensasi tersendiri bagi siapa saja yang tertarik merasakan dentumannya.
Menjelang Bulan Suci Ramadan dan lebaran, inflasi menjadi perhatian semua pihak. Gejolak harga menjelang hari besar umat Islam ini acapkali membuat masyarakat panik. Menurut Adinanto Cahyono, Deputi Kepala Perwakilan Bidang Ekonomi dan Keuangan Bank Indonesia, inflasi menjelang kedua hari besar itu dari tahun ke tahun biasanya memang yang bergejolak adalah dua item, yakni harga bahan pangan dan harga-harga yang diatur oleh pemerintah seperti bahan bakar minyak, gas serta terutama sekali adalah transportasi, khusus di Pontianak kaitannya dengan angkutan udara.
Tak kalah pentingnya, lanjut dia, adalah memperhatikan ketersediaan pasokan pangan. Dirinya yakin Pemkot Pontianak maupun Pemprov Kalbar sudah berpengalaman dalam menyediakan kecukupan pasokan ini. Namun yang tidak bisa dihindari adalah biaya transportasi yang mungkin nanti akan membengkak dikarenakan permintaan yang banyak. Selama lima tahun terakhir dari data historis, penelitian pihaknya melihat dua penyumbang inflasi yakni daging dan telur. Diakuinya, kedua komoditas itu sulit dihindari sebagai penyumbang inflasi dari tahun ke tahun.
Meski diakuinya persentase secara pasti tidak bisa dijelaskan, namun ia katakan ada kecenderungan dari tahun ke dan memang ada penurunan dalam inflasi. Angkutan udara disebut selalu menempati angka yang paling tinggi pada setiap saat bulan Ramadan dan menjelang lebaran. Tetapi bila dibandingkan tahun-tahun sebelumnya, menurut Adinanto, trennya cenderung menurun.
Kecenderungan menurunnya harga itu kemungkinan sudah banyaknya maskapai yang masuk, jam-jam penerbangan sudah banyak, begitu pula direct flight sudah banyak, sehingga masyarakat banyak pilihan untuk bisa memilih mana yang optimal bagi mereka untuk pulang kampung. Bahkan, pihaknya membuat sebuah terobosan di mana agen-agen besar melaporkan secara signifikan melalui online. Jadi semua distributor tentu punya staf, nah dia bisa masukan data ke Diskumdag secara online.
Dengan demikian, masyarakat bisa melihat berapa stok yang ada di distributor secara transparan. Kendala yang kerap dihadapi, harga-harga ditampilkan, baik itu harga beras, harga gula pasir sesuai Harga Eceran Tertinggi HET , kemudian ada juga harga dari Bulog maupun harga pasaran, tetapi kadangkala tetap ada kelangkaan. Hal ini lantaran dari pihak distributor tidak menyampaikan informasi stok yang sesungguhnya. Untuk itu, pihaknya merangkul distributor dengan bekerja sama dalam suatu Memorandum of Understanding MoU , di mana mereka wajib menyampaikan stok secara online, baik melalui Whatsapp maupun email.
Bila mereka enggan melaporkan stok yang tersedia, maka pihaknya akan melaporkan hal itu kepada Kementerian Perdagangan dan akibatnya izin distributornya bisa dicabut. Sedangkan jam masuk kantor seperti biasa yakni mulai pukul Secara rinci, Rusdalita memaparkan,hari Senin sampai dengan Kamis masuk pukul Khusus hari Jumat masuk mulai pukul Rusdalita menegaskan, ASN di lingkungan Pemkot Pontianak harus mengikuti ketentuan ini sebagaimana yang telah dikeluarkan dalam Surat Edaran tersebut di atas.
Pawai akbar ini terbagi menjadi dua kategori yakni pawai jalan kaki dan kendaraan hias. Berbagai jenis kendaraan dihiasi ornamen bernuansa Islami. Tak ketinggalan pula peserta pawai jalan kaki dengan berbagai atribut maupun kostum bernuansakan Islami turut menyemarakkan pawai akbar. Melalui momentum ini, Mahmudah mengajak seluruh masyarakat Pontianak saling menghormati, saling menghargai diantara sesama umat sehingga dapat tercipta suasana yang kondusif dan harmonisasi dalam keberagaman.
Sejalan dengan proses Pilkada yang tengah berlangsung saat ini, ia berharap kepada seluruh masyarakat untuk tetap menjaga stabilitas dan kondusifitas masyarakat agar tetap rukun dan damai. Selain itu, Mahmudah juga meminta kesadaran politik masyarakat untuk mendukung seluruh proses pembangunan melalui penggunaan hak pilih dengan sebaik-baiknya, baik pada Pilkada Wali Kota, Pilgub maupun Pilpres yang akan datang.
Impeachment Trial Politics Covid U. Follow NBC News.
Twenty days seedlings of Sesbania virgata Cav. Fabaceae cultivated in green house were flooded by forty days. Flooded plants presented increasing of dry weight and lenght, evident cortical fissures and spongy cortical swelling on the stem basis and root, superficial roots on the soil and adventitious roots. It is possible that the morpho-anatomic plasticity presented by this specie is contribuiting for its hipoxic soils stablishment. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.
Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8. The control plants were irrigated with canal water.
Sampling was done at vegetative stage DAS. About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm -1 and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant -1 were significantly decreased from Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa 0.
Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa Facing the challenge of sustainable bioenergy production: Could halophytes be part of the solution? Due to steadily growing population and economic transitions in the more populous countries, renewable sources of energy are needed more than ever.
Plant biomass as a raw source of bioenergy and biofuel products may meet the demand for sustainable energy; however, such plants typically compete with food crops, which should not be wasted for producing energy and chemicals. Second-generation or advanced biofuels that are based on renewable and non-edible biomass resources are processed to produce cellulosic ethanol, which could be further used for producing energy, but also bio-based chemicals including higher alcohols, organic acids, and bulk chemicals.
Halophytes do not compete with conventional crops for arable areas and freshwater resources, since they grow naturally in saline ecosystems, mostly in semi-arid and arid areas. Using halophytes for biofuel production may provide a mid-term economically feasible and environmentally sustainable solution to producing bioenergy, contributing, at the same time, to making saline areas - which have been considered unproductive for a long time - more valuable.
This review emphasises on halophyte definition, global distribution, and environmental requirements. It also examines their enzymatic valorization, focusing on salt-tolerant enzymes from halophilic microbial species that may be deployed with greater advantage compared to their conventional mesophilic counterparts for faster degradation of halophyte biomass. Germination of seeds of the invasive plant Sesbania virgata cav.
Full Text Available The work had as objectives to evaluate the influence of the light, temperature, and chemical scarification on the germination of seeds of S. The seeds of S. The seeds were put to germinate in plastic boxes gerbox with filter paper. The acid scarification increased germination percentage and speed germination index.
Sementes de S. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte , and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater SW and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds Modeling salt movement and halophytic crop growth on marginal lands with the APEX model.
At these saline sites, cultivation of highly salt-tolerant plants, known as halophytes , may increase productivity compared to conventional salt-sensitive crops i. Through a variety of mechanisms, halophytes are more effective than glycophytes at excluding, accumulating, and secreting salts from their tissues. Each mechanism can have a different impact on the salt balance in the plant-soil-water system. To date, little information is available to understand the long-term impacts of halophyte cultivation on environmental quality.
The crops being modeled include quinoa Chenopodium quinoa , which has utilities for human consumption and forage, and AC Saltlander green wheatgrass Elymus hoffmannii , which has forage utility. APEX simulates salt movement between soil layers and accounts for the salt balance in the plant-soil-water system, including salinity in irrigation water and crop-specific salt uptake. Key crop growth parameters in APEX are derived from experimental growth data obtained under non-stressed conditions.
Data from greenhouse and field experiments in which quinoa and AC Saltlander were grown under various soil salinity and irrigation salinity treatments are being used to parameterize, calibrate, and test the model. This presentation will discuss progress on crop parameterization and completed model runs under different salt-affected soil and irrigation conditions.
Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant.
They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and tr On the distribution and evaluation of Na, Mg and Cl in leaves of selected halophytes.
Diverse physiological, biochemical and morphological adaptations enable plants to survive in extreme saline environments where osmotic and ionic stresses limit growth and development. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants that can withstand extraordinarily high levels of Na and Cl in their leaves.
The tissue and cellular distribution patterns of salt ions can be linked to the underlying mechanisms of salt tolerance. Application of fast, reliable, multi-elemental and quantitative techniques such as micro-proton-induced X-ray emission micro-PIXE will significantly contribute to and accelerate studies of plant salt tolerance, especially as micro-PIXE also provides spatially resolved quantitative data for light elements, such as Na and Mg.
The spatial concentration distributions of Na, Mg, Cl, K, P and S in leaves of four halophytes Bassia indica, Atriplex prostrata, Spartina maritima and Limonium angustifolium were determined using micro-PIXE, to study the salt-tolerance strategies of the selected halophytes. Different distribution patterns of the studied elements were seen in the leaves; however, in all four of these plant species, Na was excluded from photosynthetically active chlorophyl tissues.
With the exception of L. By increasing soil salinisation worldwide, the possibility to reliably complement spatial distributions of Na, Mg, Cl, K, P and S with plant structural morphology will contribute significantly to our understanding of plant tolerance mechanisms at the tissue and cell levels.
In addition, these kinds of studies are of particular value for designing crop plants with high salt tolerance and for the development of phytoremediation technologies. Biophysical and biochemical constraints imposed by salt stress:Learning from halophyte.
Full Text Available Soil salinization is one of the most important factors impacting plant productivity. About 3. Halophytes typically are considered as plants able to complete their life cycle in environments where the salt concentration is mM NaCl or higher. Different strategies are known to overcome salt stress, as adaptation mechanisms from this type of plants.
Salinity adjustment is a complex phenomenon characterized by both biochemical and biophysical adaptations. As photosynthesis is a prerequisite for biomass production, halophytes adapted their electronic transduction pathways and the entire energetic metabolism to overcome the salt excess. The maintenance of ionic homeostasis is in the basis of all cellular stress in particular in terms of redox potential and energy transduction.
In the present work the biophysical mechanisms underlying energy capture and transduction in halophytes are discussed alongside with their relation to biochemical mechanisms, integrating data from photosystem light harvesting complexes, electronic transport chains to the quinone pools, carbon harvesting and energy dissipation metabolism.
Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation. Halophytes , salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants.
However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage.
Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. We Isolated and characterized 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa to understand the interactions between endophytes and halophyte.
ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stalk and leaf of Suaeda salsa and were identified based on morphological, physiological-biochemical properties, API and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Isolates were evaluated for their ACC deaminase, antifungal, protease activity, siderophores and phytohormones, such as indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization.
All the strains possessed the phosphate-solubilizing ability and could produce siderophores and phytohormones more or less. None of them could fix atmospheric nitrogen or produce protease. Only strain SS12 showed antagonism against two phytopathogenic fungi viz Fusarium oxysporum f. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. El complex Euphorbia esula-E. Full Text Available The recent discovery in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula southern and central Catalonia of three populations belonging to the Euphorbia esula—E.
Our results indicate that all the material examined both recent and old samples can be attributed to E. The macromorphological characteristics vary somewhat between populations and some individual plants bear a strong resemblance to forms that are usually referred to E.
It is not possible, however, to confirm the presence of this hybrid in the region without further studies. After this study, E. The present-day populations we attribute to E. They are found in herbaceous habitats with clear anthropic influence abandoned fields and the edges of roads and tracks, on deep, fairly dry soils.
These habitats are similar to those typical of E. It is likely that the populations are temporal and indeed in two of the three recent localities it has been confirmed that they date from after Current data suggest that this is a non-indigenous species, but in view of the fact that it was detected a century ago, the possibility that it is a rare indigenous species with itinerant populations cannot be ruled out.
El hallazgo reciente de tres poblaciones del complejo Euphorbia esula-E. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions. In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown.
We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde MDA, a marker of oxidative stress and antioxidant systems.
Stress tolerance in S. For the most salt-tolerant taxa S. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.
Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte , we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform.
Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into , non-redundant transcripts with an average length of bp. Among these, 35, unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18, unigenes were classified into known pathways.
Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60, unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38, and 22, up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.
Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora. The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated.
Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate A , and greater water-use efficiency WUE.
Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances G s.
These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte , which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance. Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium.
Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses.
Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. SC grown with or without halophytic companion plants SalsolasodaL. Treatments consist of four soil type collected from Harran plain-Turkey with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity EC : 0.
The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight 4. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. Significant interaction between cut frequency and cut intensity as well as phosphorus fertilization and cut frequency for the DM yield was observed.
The best combination between cut frequency and cut intensity was 40 days and 5 cm, respectively, with The phosphorus fertilization showed higher efficacy when the cut frequency was 40 days The relationship between silicon availability, and growth and silicon concentration of the salt marsh halophyte Spartina anglica. Analysis of silicon concentrations of various halophytes from salt marshes in the S.
Netherlands shows that the silicon concentration of Spartina anglica Gramineae is relatively high. To study the influence of dissolved Si concentrations on growth and plant tissue concentrations of S. Full Text Available It is urgent to recover Bohai Bay costal wetland ecosystem because of covering a large area of severe saline-alkali soil. To explore the relationship between halophyte herbaceous succession and microbial community structure, we chose four local communities which played an important role in improving soil microenvironment.
We performed phospholipid fatty acid analysis, measured soil parameters, and evaluated shifts of microbial community structure. Results showed that microbial community structure changed significantly along succession and bacteria community was dominant. Total phospholipid fatty acid content increased in different successional stages but decreased with depth, with similar variations in bacterial and fungal biomass.
Soil organic carbon and especially total nitrogen were positively correlated with microbial biomass. Colonization of pioneering salt-tolerant plants Suaeda glauca in saline-alkali bare land changed total soil microorganism content and composition. These results showed that belowground processes were strongly related with aboveground halophyte succession. And also these findings demonstrated that microbial community biomass and composition evolved along with vegetation succession environmental variables.
Effect of extraction solvents on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinal halophytes. This study was conducted to determine the most effective solvent for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinally important coastal halophytes Thespesia populneoides, Salvadora persica, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Suaeda fruticosa and Pluchea lanceolata known for high antioxidant potential.
Highest antioxidant activity was also found in T. The correlation analyses of each solvent showed strong to weak relationships among all studied parameters with maximum values r and R2 in methanol followed by ethanol and water. Weaker correlation of acetone and chloroform indicates low capacity of these solvents both for polyphenol extraction and antioxidant activity. Our results reveal that aqueous methanol extracts of coastal halophytes had comparatively higher antioxidant activity than commercial antioxidants which indicate both their prospective efficacy and potential to replace synthetic derivatives from edible and medicinal products.
Stoichiometric variation of halophytes in response to changes in soil salinity. Variation in soil salt may change the stoichiometry of a halophyte by altering plant ecophysiology, and exert different influences on various plant organs, which has potentially important consequences for the nutrition of consumers as well as nutrient cycling in a saline ecosystem.
Using a greenhouse pot experiment, we investigated the effect of salinity variability on the growth and stoichiometry of different organs of Suaeda glauca and Salicornia europaea - two dominant species of important ecological and economic value in the saline ecosystem.
Our results showed that appropriate salt stimulated the growth of both species during the vigorous growth period, while high salt suppressed growth. Na significantly increased with increased salt in the culture, whereas concentrations of other measured elements and K:Na ratio for both species significantly decreased at low salt treatments, and became more gradual under higher salt conditions.
Furthermore, with the change of salt in culture, variations in leaf degenerated leaf for S. These results suggest that appropriate saline conditions can enhance biological C fixation of halophytes ; however, increasing salt could affect consumer health and decrease cycling of other nutrients in saline ecosystems. The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance of salt marsh rodents.
The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed Salicornia virginica L.
These data are discussed in relation to other available information concerning the ecology of coastal salt marshes, particularly in western North America. Sea Blight Suaeda fruticosa was the only species in which the TOP correlated with the distance from the tide level; sap TOP increased away from the lagoon's edge.
In both Sea Blight and Common Pickle weed, TOP was not directly related to chloride content, indicating the importance of other osmotically active solutes. Harvest mice were placed on three experimental regimes: 1 millet seeds only, 2 pickleweed only, and 3 pickleweed and millet seed. Meadow mice were tested on the last regime only. Harvest mice survived best on a strict millet seed diet; when Salicornia was consumed to a detectable extent, the mice did not survive. Meadow mice, however, could survive using Salicornia as a dietary source in conjunction with seeds.
Kidney electrolyte concentrating abilities indicated that harvest mice should be able to utilize pickleweed; this was not confirmed in my. Influence of the sowing depth and amount of sugarcane straw on the emergence of Chloris polydactyla and Eleusine indica and their control by herbicides applied pre-emergence. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. In the first experiment, the effects of six sowing depths 0. This experiment was evaluated under two rainfall regimes in separate experiments simulation of 20 mm of rainfall 1 or 10 days after herbicide application.
For the Indian goosegrass, the decline in emergence mainly occurred beginning at 4 t ha-1 of straw and a 4 cm sowing depth. The treatments with sowing at a 1 cm depth and with 0, 1, 2, and 4 t ha-1 of straw provided the highest emergence percentage for the species. Application of the herbicide indaziflam alone was the only ineffective treatment for the control of the weeds regardless of the amount of straw and the water regime used. Se utilizaron 10 repeticiones por tratamiento y una planta por maceta unidad experimental.
This work aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF on the nutrient uptake of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, as well as, the influence of these fungi on the shoot nutrient content of these plant species, when cultivated in single and intercropping systems, under field conditions in an area of clay extraction.
The phloem-sap feeding mealybug Ferrisia virgata carries 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations that do not cause disease in host plants. Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Las is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing HLB, the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri Psyllidae, Trioza erytreae Triozidae, and Cacopsylla Psylla citrisuga Psyllidae.
In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction qPCR assay of the dissected digestive systems.
However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. Environmental change in a Mediterranean salt marsh wetland: ecological drivers of halophytes diversity along flooding frequency gradients.
Full Text Available Coastal wetlands are among most threatened ecosystems, owing to the intense human activity concentrated in shoreline areas together with the expected sea level rise resultant from climate change. Salt marshes are wetlands which are inundated twice daily by the sea, thus tightly dependent on frequency and duration of submergence.
Identifying the factors that determine the diversity, distribution and abundance of halophyte species in salt marshes will help retaining their conservation status and adopt anticipate management measures, and this will ultimately contribute to preserve marshland biodiversity and ecological services.
In spite of their great ecological value, salt marsh ecosystems in this region have suffered intense anthropic disturbance, namely hydrologic alterations and vegetation removal to gain soils for agriculture and salt intensive production. The end-point is to implement, afterward, a sustainable cultivation of autochthonous halophyte plants, with economic value, in the abandoned saltpans and degraded rangelands.
This project will contribute to the conservation of halophyte diversity, promote environmental requalification, and provide an economic alternative for local populations, enabling the reduction of unregulated harvest of halophyte plant populations. Field sampling strategy included a preliminary survey of local vegetation diversity and floristic inventories of halophyte communities in plots established across the existing environmental heterogeneity in order to span the whole variation gradients of the species presence and abundance.
The abiotic characterization of halophyte communities included a. The use of halophytic plants for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands. This research studied the use of constructed wetlands CWs to reduce water salinity. EC and concentrations of calcium Ca , magnesium Mg , sodium Na , and chlorine Cl were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of 1 week.
The results suggested that these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all the salinity levels within this study. Moreover, these plants reduced the measured parameters to acceptable levels. Therefore, these plants can be considered good options for salt phytoremediation.
Phytoextraction of heavy metals by Sesuvium portulacastrum l. The present study investigated the sources for remediation of heavy metals and salts from tannery effluent using salt marsh halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.
From the results observed, in tannery effluent treated soil from 1 kg dry weight of plant sample, Sesuvium portulacastrum accumulated Cultivation of Sesuvium portulacastrum significantly reduced the EC, pH and SAR levels in tannery effluent and salt treated soil and correspondingly increased in plant sample after days of cultivation.
In conclusion, Sesuvium portulacastrum was an efficient in accumulating heavy metals such as Chromium, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc, sodium and chloride maximum through its leaves when compared to stem and root. The finding of these bioacccumulation studies indicates that Sesuvium portulacastrum could be used for phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated field.
Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites. Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable k-strategist group.
This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. Author 29 refs. Deficit irrigation of a landscape halophyte for reuse of saline waste water in a desert city. Saline waste waters from industrial and water treatment processes are an under-utilized resource in desert urban environments. Management practices to safely use these water sources are still in development.
We used a deeprooted native halophyte , Atriplex lentiformis quailbush , to absorb mildly saline effluent mg l-1 total dissolved solids, mainly sodium sulfate from a water treatment plant in the desert community of Twentynine Palms, California. We developed a deficit irrigation strategy to avoid discharging water past the root zone to the aquifer.
The plants were irrigated at about one-third the rate of reference evapotranspiration ETo calculated from meteorological data over five years and soil moisture levels were monitored to a soil depth of 4. The deficit irrigation schedule maintained the soil below field capacity throughout the study. Water was presented on a more or less constant schedule, so that the application rates were less than ETo in summer and equal to or slightly greater than ETo in winter, but the plants were able to consume water stored in the profile in winter to support summer ET.
Sodium salts gradually increased in the soil profile over the study but sulfate levels remained low, due to formation of gypsum in the calcic soil. The high salt tolerance, deep roots, and drought tolerance of desert halophytes such as A. Phytostabilisation of severely contaminated mine tailings using halophytes and field addition of organic and inorganic amendments.
Phytostabilisation strategies have proven to be an efficient remediation option for mine tailings, but the adequate plant species and amendments have to be carefully selected. A remediation experiment was carried out at the semi-field level in tailings pH 3. After four months of field stabilisation, tailings were transferred unaltered to a plant growth facility, and Atriplex halimus and Zygophyllum fabago halophytes were sown.
Three months later, trace element TE solubility, plant accumulation and chemical speciation in the tailings pore water were studied. In unamended tailings, soluble TEs concentrations were very high e. The addition of amendments increased tailings pH 6. Plants were able to grow only in amended tailings, and both species presented low levels of Al, As, Cd and Zn. Therefore, the use of combined red mud derivative and compost and halophytes was shown to be a good phytostabilisation strategy, although the dose applied must be carefully chosen in order to avoid possible solubilisation of As and Tl.
How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas? Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health.
The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity.
Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress.
These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: 1 salt marshes and mangroves, and 2 mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments.
Soil amendment with halophytes induces physiological changes and reduces root-knot infection in eggplant and okra. Nematode infection results in altered plant growth and physicochemical processes due to gall formation. Many plants contain unique biochemicals that have biocidal properties and offer a potential novel approach to suppress the nematode populations in soil and improve growth of crop plants.
In the present study effect of some indigenous halophytic plant species Tamarix indica Willd, Suaeda fruticosa Forssk and Salsola imbricata Schultz Dandy were tested against M. Tested halophytes significantly P halophytes when incorporated in soil 0. Black beauty and okra Abelmoschus esculentus [L. Arka anamika and provided control of root-knot infection at higher doses 0. Rampant salinity coupled with population explosion necessitates search for suitable alternatives to conventional sources of food both for human and animal consumption.
While it may be difficult to change our culinary preferences, training animals to adopt a changed diet of nonconventional salt tolerant plants is easier. Using these wild plants however, requires estimation of undesirable secondary metabolites SMs produced during stressful conditions, which may be harmful for health of animals. Values of SMs in the studied plants ranged from 0.
Most of the species 19 contained low to moderate amount of individual as well as total SMs which were within the non-toxic ranges. However, three species distributed in coastal habitats where average soil salinity Additionally, these plants represents a viable choice as they can be grown without encroaching on agricultural lands and fresh water resources and could promote livestock.
Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste. Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system BLSS designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover.
The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia.
Water potential in soil and Atriplex nummularia phytoremediator halophyte under drought and salt stresses. Atriplex nummularia is a halophyte widely employed to recover saline soils and was used as a model to evaluate the water potentials in the soil-plant system under drought and salt stresses.
The type of ion in the irrigation water did not influence the soil potential, but was altered by EC. The water potentials determined for different moisture levels, EC levels and salt types showed huge importance for the management of this species in semiarid regions and can be used to recover salt affected soils.
Halophyte vegetation influences in salt marsh retention capacity for heavy metals. We analysed concentrations of Cu, Cd and Pb in above and belowground tissues of the halophyte species Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima, as well as in sediments and pore water between the roots in a Tagus estuary salt marsh Portugal. From these results we calculated the pools of metals in the compartments mentioned above. Relative percentages of accumulation in each pool were also determined.
Our aim was to determine how the type of vegetation in the salt marsh affects overall metal retention capacity of the system. It was concluded that areas colonised by H. Consequently, S. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum.
The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value 1. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate P N.
Reductions in P N could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata. This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata Salicornioideae , a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on flood-prone mudflats of salt lakes.
Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the edible medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica L. Tamarix gallica is a halophytic species having hepatotonic and stimulant properties, as it was traditionally used in the treatment of various liver disorders.
Leaf and flower infusion have anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheic properties. In this work, we have investigated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and flower extracts and their phenolic composition. Results showed that flowers exhibit a higher antioxidant activity as compared to the leaves, IC 50 values of the flower extracts are being 1.
Accordingly, flower extracts exhibited the highest total phenolic content Furthermore, Tamarix extracts showed appreciable antibacterial properties against human pathogen strains. The mean inhibition zone was from 0 to 6. The strongest activity was recorded against Micrococcus luteus and the lowest activity was observed against Escherichia coli.
Moreover, organ extracts show a weakly to moderate activity against the tested Candida. These findings suggest that Tamarix may be considered as an interesting source of antioxidants for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries and for food manufactures. Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions.
The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species Salicornia europaea L. It was constituted that S. Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. Protein profiling of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.
Plant epidermal trichomes are as varied in morphology as they are in function. In the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, specialized trichomes called epidermal bladder cells EBC line the surface of leaves and stems, and increase dramatically in size and volume upon plant salt-treatment. These cells have been proposed to have roles in plant defense and UV protection, but primarily in sodium sequestration and as water reservoirs.
The proteome of EBC provides insight into the roles of these cells in ion and water homeostasis and raises the possibility that they are photosynthetically active and functioning in Crassulacean acid metabolism. KGaA, Weinheim. NaCl protects against Cd and Cu-induced toxicity in the halophyte Atriplex halimus. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the extent of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress and the antioxidant response triggered in the halophyte species Atriplex halimus after metallic trace elements exposure.
The levels of malondialdehyde increased in root tissue when Cd, and especially Cu, were added to the irrigation solution, indicating that oxidative damage occurred. Results showed that NaCl gave a partial protection against Cd and Cu induced toxicity, although these contaminants had distinct influence on plant physiology. It can be concluded that salinity drastically modified heavy metal absorption and improved plant growth.
Salinity also decreased oxidative damage, but differently in plants exposed to Cd or Cu stress. Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter.
Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively.
The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.
A spatial pattern analysis of the halophytic species distribution in an arid coastal environment. Obtaining information about the spatial distribution of desert plants is considered as a serious challenge for ecologists and environmental modeling due to the required intensive field work and infrastructures in harsh and remote arid environments.
A new method was applied for assessing the spatial distribution of the halophytic species HS in an arid coastal environment. This method was based on the object-based image analysis for a high-resolution Google Earth satellite image. The integration of the image processing techniques and field work provided accurate information about the spatial distribution of HS. The extracted objects were based on assumptions that explained the plant-pixel relationship.
Three different types of digital image processing techniques were implemented and validated to obtain an accurate HS spatial distribution. Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana us. Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition.
Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under h light photo period and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. The SbASR-1 gene cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.
Salinity severely affects plant growth and development. Plants evolved various mechanisms to cope up stress both at molecular and cellular levels. Halophytes have developed better mechanism to alleviate the salt stress than glycophytes, and therefore, it is advantageous to study the role of different genes from halophytes. Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte , which grows luxuriantly in the salty marshes in the coastal areas. ASR-1 genes are abscisic acid ABA responsive, whose expression level increases under abiotic stresses, injury, during fruit ripening and in pollen grains.
The SbASR-1 transcript showed up-regulation under salt stress conditions. The SbASR-1 protein contains amino acids of The SbASR-1 has a large number of disorder-promoting amino acids, which make it an intrinsically disordered protein. T 0 transgenic tobacco seeds showed better germination and seedling growth as compared to wild type Wt in a salt stress condition. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.
The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non- halophyte Festuca arundinacea.
The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon TPH degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. Combining the planting of S.
Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes above C20 were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria 3. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Full Text Available The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide.
Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress, as well as providing a food source on marginal lands. However, despite being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of many halophytes will not germinate on saline soils, yet little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination.
We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema Thellungiella salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent.
Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. This seed state could facilitate. The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut Arachis hypogaea fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot Chenopodium album , feathertop chloris Chloris virgata , purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus , jimson weed Datura stramonium , goose grass Eleusine indica , khaki weed Tagetes minuta , and cocklebur Xanthium strumarium were poor hosts.
Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed spec Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, being most closely related to Pseudonocardia kongjuensis LM T Full Text Available The expansion of arid and semi-arid areas and consequently water scarcity are affected by climate change.
This can influence on availability and quality of water while demands on food and water are increasing. As pressure on freshwater is increasing, utilization of saline water in a sustainable approach is inevitable. Therefore, bioremediation using salt tolerant plants that is consistent with sustainable development objectives might be an alternative and effective approach. In this study, saline wastewater from a local desalination treatment plant was utilized to irrigate four halophyte plants, including Aloevera, Tamarix aphylla, Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla.
A field experiment was designed and conducted in Zarrindasht, south of Iran in years accordingly. Two irrigation treatments consisting of freshwater with salinity of 2. The experiment was designed as a split plot in the form of randomized complete block design RCB with three replications.
The results of variance analysis, ANOVA, on salt concentration in Aloevera showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of two irrigation water qualities except for Na. None of the examined salt elements showed a significant difference in Tamarix aphylla irrigated with both water qualities. As a result, no significant difference was observed in salt absorption by the examined plants in treatments which were irrigated by desalination wastewater and freshwater.
Chos Malal,Chos Malal, Las Lajas,Las Lajas, Mar de Ajo,Mar de Ajo, La Plata,La Plata, General Pico,General Pico, Sierra Colorado,Sierra Colorado, Rio Tercero,Rio Tercero, San Pedro,San Pedro, Los Blancos,Los Blancos, Monte Quemado,Monte Quemado, Las Lomitas,Las Lomitas, San Justo,San Justo, Venado Tuerto,Venado Tuerto, San Luis,San Luis, Rio Cuarto,Rio Cuarto, Perito Moreno,Perito Moreno, Rio Grande,Rio Grande, San Rafael,San Rafael, Rio Colorado,Rio Colorado, La Rioja,La Rioja, Santiago del Estero,Santiago del Estero, El Calafate,El Calafate, San Juan,San Juan, Santa Rosa,Santa Rosa, Santa Fe,Santa Fe, Puerto Deseado,Puerto Deseado, Rio Gallegos,Rio Gallegos, Comodoro Rivadavia,Comodoro Rivadavia, Bahia Blanca,Bahia Blanca, Mar del Plata,Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires,Buenos Aires, Central Coast,Central Coast, Sunshine Coast,Sunshine Coast, Pine Creek,Pine Creek, Adelaide River,Adelaide River, Newcastle Waters,Newcastle Waters, Tom Price,Tom Price, Mount Magnet,Mount Magnet, Port Denison,Port Denison, Mount Barker,Mount Barker, Southern Cross,Southern Cross, Tweed Heads,Tweed Heads, Batemans Bay,Batemans Bay, Coffs Harbour,Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga,Wagga Wagga, Byron Bay,Byron Bay, Streaky Bay,Streaky Bay, Tumby Bay,Tumby Bay, Port Pirie,Port Pirie, Murray Bridge,Murray Bridge, Victor Harbor,Victor Harbor, Swan Hill,Swan Hill, Hervey Bay,Hervey Bay, Charters Towers,Charters Towers, Port Douglas,Port Douglas, Tennant Creek,Tennant Creek, Halls Creek,Halls Creek, Three Springs,Three Springs, Port Macquarie,Port Macquarie, Mount Gambier,Mount Gambier, Port Augusta,Port Augusta, Port Hedland,Port Hedland, Broken Hill,Broken Hill, Port Lincoln,Port Lincoln, Mount Isa,Mount Isa, Gold Coast,Gold Coast, Alice Springs,Alice Springs, Wiener Neustadt,Wiener Neustadt, Ali Bayramli,Ali Bayramli, El Cayo,El Cayo, Belize City,Belize City, Orange Walk,Orange Walk, Punta Gorda,Punta Gorda, Wangdue Prodrang,Wangdue Prodrang, Puerto Villarroel,Puerto Villarroel, Santa Ana,Santa Ana, Sica Sica,Sica Sica, Villa Martin,Villa Martin, San Carlos,San Carlos, Entre Rios,Entre Rios, San Borja,San Borja, San Ramon,San Ramon, Puerto Heath,Puerto Heath, Puerto Acosta,Puerto Acosta, Coro Coro,Coro Coro, Piso Firme,Piso Firme, Puerto Quijarro,Puerto Quijarro, San Ignacio,San Ignacio, San Javier,San Javier, Puerto Suarez,Puerto Suarez, San Matias,San Matias, Santa Cruz,Santa Cruz, Banja Luka,Banja Luka, Presidente Dutra,Presidente Dutra, Itapecuru Mirim,Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Ines,Santa Ines, Pimenta Bueno,Pimenta Bueno, Ponta Pora,Ponta Pora, Tres Lagoas,Tres Lagoas, Nova Lima,Nova Lima, Pouso Alegre,Pouso Alegre, Pocos de Caldas,Pocos de Caldas, Conselheiro Lafaiete,Conselheiro Lafaiete, Varzea Grande,Varzea Grande, Santana do Livramento,Santana do Livramento, Sao Gabriel,Sao Gabriel, Rosario do Sul,Rosario do Sul, Cachoeira do Sul,Cachoeira do Sul, Santo Angelo,Santo Angelo, Rio Negro,Rio Negro, Telemaco Borba,Telemaco Borba, Jaragua do Sul,Jaragua do Sul, Campo Maior,Campo Maior, Rio Largo,Rio Largo, Palmeira dos Indios,Palmeira dos Indios, Paulo Afonso,Paulo Afonso, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim,Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Barra Mansa,Barra Mansa, Nova Iguacu,Nova Iguacu, Duque de Caxias,Duque de Caxias, Cabo Frio,Cabo Frio, Santo Andre,Santo Andre, Rio Claro,Rio Claro, Braganca Paulista,Braganca Paulista, Sao Carlos,Sao Carlos, Presidente Prudente,Presidente Prudente, Barra do Corda,Barra do Corda, Capitao Poco,Capitao Poco, Rolim de Moura,Rolim de Moura, Sete Lagoas,Sete Lagoas, Campo Belo,Campo Belo, Ponte Nova,Ponte Nova, Barra do Garcas,Barra do Garcas, Pontes e Lacerda,Pontes e Lacerda, Barra do Bugres,Barra do Bugres, Sao Borja,Sao Borja, Novo Hamburgo,Novo Hamburgo, Bento Goncalves,Bento Goncalves, Campo Murao,Campo Murao, Foz do Iguacu,Foz do Iguacu, Porto Uniao,Porto Uniao, Porto Seguro,Porto Seguro, Senhor do Bonfim,Senhor do Bonfim, Sao Mateus,Sao Mateus, Volta Redonda,Volta Redonda, Nova Cruz,Nova Cruz, Porto Santana,Porto Santana, Rio Verde,Rio Verde, Pires do Rio,Pires do Rio, Novo Horizonte,Novo Horizonte, Porto Nacional,Porto Nacional, Governador Valadares,Governador Valadares, Juiz de Fora,Juiz de Fora, Santa Maria,Santa Maria, Passo Fundo,Passo Fundo, Juazeiro do Norte,Juazeiro do Norte, Nova Vicosa,Nova Vicosa, Joao Pessoa,Joao Pessoa, Campina Grande,Campina Grande, Nova Friburgo,Nova Friburgo, Sena Madureira,Sena Madureira, Fonte Boa,Fonte Boa, Novo Airao,Novo Airao, Conceicao do Araguaia,Conceicao do Araguaia, Principe da Beira,Principe da Beira, Teofilo Otoni,Teofilo Otoni, Mato Grosso,Mato Grosso, Laranjal do Jari,Laranjal do Jari, Vila Velha,Vila Velha,3.
Rio Branco,Rio Branco, Porto Velho,Porto Velho, Belo Horizonte,Belo Horizonte, Montes Claros,Montes Claros, Alta Floresta,Alta Floresta, Caxias do Sul,Caxias do Sul, Ponta Grossa,Ponta Grossa, Vitoria da Conquista,Vitoria da Conquista, Vila Velha,Vila Velha, Ribeirao Preto,Ribeirao Preto, Cruzeiro do Sul,Cruzeiro do Sul, Campo Grande,Campo Grande, Feira de Santana,Feira de Santana, Boa Vista,Boa Vista,2.
Porto Alegre,Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro,Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo,Sao Paulo, Stara Zagora,Stara Zagora, Fada Ngourma,Fada Ngourma, Gorom Gorom,Gorom Gorom, Bobo Dioulasso,Bobo Dioulasso, Kampong Spoe,Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,Kampong Thum, Prey Veng,Prey Veng, Stoeng Treng,Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,Svay Rieng, Kampong Cham,Kampong Cham, Kompong Chhnang,Kompong Chhnang, Siem Reap,Siem Reap, Phnom Penh,Phnom Penh, Abong Mbang,Abong Mbang,3.
Berens River,Berens River, Island Lake,Island Lake, La Ronge,La Ronge, Stony Rapids,Stony Rapids, Meander River,Meander River, Hall Beach,Hall Beach, Hay River,Hay River, Owen Sound,Owen Sound, New Liskeard,New Liskeard, La Sarre,La Sarre, New Glasgow,New Glasgow, Deer Lake,Deer Lake, La Scie,La Scie, Nelson House,Nelson House, Oxford House,Oxford House, Swift Current,Swift Current, Meadow Lake,Meadow Lake, Hudson Bay,Hudson Bay, Lake Louise,Lake Louise, Fort Chipewyan,Fort Chipewyan, Bella Bella,Bella Bella, Campbell River,Campbell River, Port Hardy,Port Hardy, Dawson Creek,Dawson Creek, Powell River,Powell River, Burns Lake,Burns Lake, Dease Lake,Dease Lake, Coral Harbour,Coral Harbour, Baker Lake,Baker Lake, Norman Wells,Norman Wells, Burwash Landing,Burwash Landing, Little Current,Little Current, Sioux Lookout,Sioux Lookout, Red Lake,Red Lake, Cat Lake,Cat Lake, Parry Sound,Parry Sound, Saint John,Saint John, Trout River,Trout River, Churchill Falls,Churchill Falls, Lynn Lake,Lynn Lake, North Battleford,North Battleford, Prince Albert,Prince Albert, Corner Brook,Corner Brook, Norway House,Norway House, Flin Flon,Flin Flon, The Pas,The Pas, Uranium City,Uranium City, Moose Jaw,Moose Jaw, Medicine Hat,Medicine Hat, Red Deer,Red Deer, Grand Prairie,Grand Prairie, Williams Lake,Williams Lake, Prince George,Prince George, Fort Nelson,Fort Nelson, Pond Inlet,Pond Inlet, Cape Dorset,Cape Dorset, Gjoa Haven,Gjoa Haven, Grise Fiord,Grise Fiord, Rankin Inlet,Rankin Inlet, Fort Resolution,Fort Resolution, Fort Simpson,Fort Simpson, Watson Lake,Watson Lake, Lansdowne House,Lansdowne House, Val d'Or,Val d'Or, Port Burwell,Port Burwell, Fort Smith,Fort Smith, Peace River,Peace River, Fort St.
John,Fort St. Cambridge Bay,Cambridge Bay, Chesterfield Inlet,Chesterfield Inlet, Dawson City,Dawson, North Bay,North Bay, Labrador City,Labrador City, Prince Rupert,Prince Rupert, Arctic Bay,Arctic Bay, Repulse Bay,Repulse Bay, Fort Severn,Fort Severn, Thunder Bay,Thunder Bay, George Town,George Town, Kaga Bandoro,Kaga Bandoro,6.
Oum Hadjer,Oum Hadjer, Faya Largeau,Faya Largeau, Am Timan,Am Timan, Maria Elena,Maria Elena, Tierra Amarilla,Tierra Amarilla, San Bernardo,San Bernardo, San Felipe,San Felipe, Vina del Mar,Vina del Mar, La Ligua,La Ligua, Nueva Imperial,Nueva Imperial, La Union,La Union, Rio Bueno,Rio Bueno, Santa Barbara,Santa Barbara, San Fernando,San Fernando, Puerto Varas,Puerto Varas, Pozo Almonte,Pozo Almonte, Diego de Almagro,Diego de Almagro, Los Andes,Los Andes, San Antonio,San Antonio, Los Lagos,Los Lagos, Puerto Aisen,Puerto Aisen, Puerto Natales,Puerto Natales, Puerto Williams,Puerto Williams,